Published 5 Jan 2022
What does JSA Mean?
JSA is an abbreviation term for Job Safety Analysis. It is a systematic technique of analyzing potential hazards for each task needed for a job. It helps integrate accepted health and safety protocols into a particular organizational operation to implement the safest way to complete the job.
This generic JSA template, or job safety analysis form, can be used by a supervisor or safety official to analyze hazards associated with performing a certain job. Begin by filling out information about the job and employee participating in the inspection. The job hazard analysis form then prompts the inspector to add steps, identify and capture hazards, rate the risk analyzed and recommend preventive measures. Preview a completed JSA example report conducted with iAuditor.
A JSA template or Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) form is a useful tool for observing and breaking down high-risk tasks into individual steps and recommending controls. Supervisors and employees work together in accomplishing JSA templates to ensure that both have a good understanding of the hazards and come up with safety measures.
The JSA process typically involves breaking a job down into smaller tasks and observing a worker performing it, identifying the potential hazards for each task, and determining preventive measures and controls to overcome these hazards.
In this article we will discuss the following:
- why Job Safety Analysis (JSA) important;
- are they required by OSHA;
- when should a JSA be completed?;
- top 10 most dangerous jobs in the United States;
- how to conduct a Job Safety Analysis;
- JSA examples;
- Toolbox talk topics;
- streamline JSA with iAuditor;
- Job Safety Analysis in construction; and
- ready to use JSA templates.
A job safety analysis is important because it increases job knowledge, establishes teamwork, serves as a health and safety standard and teaching aid, and supports accident investigations at work. Dangerous jobs benefit the most from a JSA because it can reduce or eliminate hazards that cause serious injuries or fatalities.
While federal regulations generally require hazard assessments, OSHA provides detailed guidelines for conducting a Job Hazard Analysis—often used interchangeably with Job Safety Analysis—in this document. As one of the tools used for hazard assessments, regularly performing a job safety analysis can help proactively ensure compliance with OSHA standard 1910.132:
“The employer shall verify that the required workplace hazard assessment has been performed through a written certification that identifies the workplace evaluated; the person certifying that the evaluation has been performed; the date(s) of the hazard assessment; and, which identifies the document as a certification of hazard assessment.”
A JSA can be conducted on many jobs in your workplace, but priority should go to the types of jobs that have:
- Highest injury or illness rates;
- Potential to cause severe or disabling injuries or illness, even if there is no history of previous accidents;
- Simple human error which could lead to a severe accident or injury;
- Undergone changes in processes and procedures; and
- Complex enough to require written instructions.
The US Bureau of Labor Statistics’ recent workplace fatality census identified the top 10 most dangerous jobs in the US. These dangerous jobs would benefit significantly from a JSA process.
- Logging Workers
- Fishers and related fishing workers
- Aircraft pilots and flight engineers
- Refuse and recyclable material collectors
- Structural iron and steelworkers
- Driver/sales workers and truck drivers
- Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers
- First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers
- Miscellaneous agricultural workers
A JSA template is used when performing a JSA procedure and is used to generate a safety and recommendation report. These four key steps can help you get started with performing more effective JSAs:
1: Choose the right job
- Choose a job that has a high accident frequency, severity and result in serious injuries
- A job that has exposure to hazardous and harmful products
- Newly established jobs in which there is a lack of experience and where hazards may not be anticipated.
- Modified jobs due to changes in procedures
- Infrequently performed jobs or non-routine jobs put workers at greater risk
2: Break a job into steps
- Don’t be too general yet not too detailed
- Rule of thumb is 10 steps
- Arrange steps into the correct sequence
- Items start in verbs
- Make notes about “What is done” not “How it is done”
- Job should be observed during normal times and situations
- Only regular tools and equipment should be used
3: Identify potential hazards
When identifying hazards, ask the right questions:
- Is the worker at risk of falling, slipping, and tripping?
- Is the worker exposed to extreme temperatures?
- Is the worker at risk of getting caught between objects?
- Is the worker exposed to explosive and combustible materials?
- Is the worker at risk of electrocution?
4: Set preventive measures
- Eliminate the hazards by using a different process, modifying an existing process, improving the environment, and changing tools.
- Contain hazard by using machine guards, enclosures, workers’ booths, or similar devices if the hazard is impossible to be eliminated.
- Reorganize work procedures.
- Minimize exposure by reducing the number of times the hazard is encountered.
Following the 4 steps for conducting a job safety analysis, a job analysis template consists of the following sections:
- Job task being assessed
The supervisor or safety officer will describe the job and identify the workers observed during the analysis.
- Hazards and safety measures
The observer will determine the potential hazard for each task being performed and come up with control measures to minimize or eliminate the hazard.
Recommendations on how each task can be accomplished safely will be recorded on the JSA and submitted for review and implementation.
Writing a job safety analysis can seem challenging at first, but with continuous practice, workers can master breaking down their job tasks, identifying hazards, and implementing controls. Listed below is an OSHA example of a job hazard analysis:
- Job Location: Metal Shop
- Analyst: Joe Safety
- Date: January 31, 2020
- Task Description: The worker reaches into the metal box to the right of the machine, grasps a 15-pound casting and carries it to the grinding wheel. The worker grinds 20 to 30 castings per hour.
- Hazard Description: Picking up a casting, the employee could drop it onto his foot. The casting’s weight and height could seriously injure the worker’s foot or toes.
- Hazard Controls:
- Remove castings from the box and place them on a table next to the grinder.
- Wear steel-toe shoes with arch protection.
- Change protective gloves that allow a better grip.
- Use a device to pick up castings.
Here is another example of a job safety analysis using iAuditor JSA templates:
Click here to view the full Job Safety Analysis Report PDF with annotated images and digital signatures.
Discussing relevant topics in daily or weekly toolbox talks can positively impact safety outcomes. Consider the following toolbox talk topics in relation to job safety analysis:
- Construction: Fatal Four Hazards Discussion | Download Template
- OSHA: Preventing Slips, Trips, and Falls | Download Template
- PPE Safety Toolbox Talk: Top 8 Protective Gear | Download Template
- Electrical Safety Toolbox Talk: Hazards, Dos and Don’ts | Download Template
- Working at Heights: Hazards, Planning, and Safety Tips | Download Template
Traditional JSA forms are printed on paper and are susceptible to damage and loss. Capturing photo evidence and collating all relevant information may take up a lot of time and effort to put in one document to create job safety analysis reports. The hassle of organizing documents and repetitive works can be avoided using iAuditor by SafetyCulture.
iAuditor is a digital safety inspection app that is widely used all over the world. It can be used to perform JSA inspections using mobile devices and capture photos of the task steps and hazards to generate JSA reports in one app. With iAuditor, safety officers can:
- complete JSA inspections anytime, anywhere even if they are offline;
- capture unlimited photo evidence, annotate, and add notes or comments to further explain the hazards;
- assign corrective measures to appropriate and authorized persons;
- set schedule for regular job hazard assessments; and
- gain overall visibility of employee safety performance.
JSA can be one of the most critical safe work practices that workers could ever do, especially when working in high-risk conditions such as in the construction industry.
Forward-thinking leaders in one of America’s largest roofing companies needed a better way to efficiently manage teams working on dangerous projects across the United States. The solution changed the corporate culture from the bottom up—every worker on every roof does one inspection on iAuditor every day.
“Once we started preaching that message to them that this is an empowerment tool, it just caught like wildfire… We are now able to attribute volume of quality inspections with a decrease in incidents and injuries, and we all win.” – Ro Lewis, Director of Health and Safety
Job Safety Analysis (JSA) Templates
You can use this OSHA job hazard analysis template as a safety planning guide or log. List the work processes being performed. Identify hazards associated with the task and elaborate the consequences or negative results if these risks are not dealt with. State preventive measures and controls to reduce, control or eliminate the hazards. Write a rationale to substantiate better action plans to be taken. Use iAuditor for easy recordkeeping of JSA logs and secure access in the future.
Use this comprehensive template to conduct more detailed hazard analysis in your workplace. As a Job Safety Analysis form in iAuditor, you can always customize this template to fit your workplace needs. Start by listing the names of the people who develops JSA procedures, and select the work permits, authorizations and PPE required for the activity. Next enumerate applicable trainings to carry out individual tasks. Also, take note of the equipment checks conducted. Proceed with the job safety analysis and risk assessment by adding steps, selecting hazards and identifying controls. Conduct an initial risk assessment, add controls (if needed), then rate the residual/revised risk analysis. Confirm whether the process is completed or not. If not, conduct a task review to serve as a basis for the continuity of the process. Finally, acknowledge by getting all people involved to sign off.
This accident injury report template can be used to document workplace accidents. A well documented accident register can help determine which jobs to prioritize for a JSA. Begin with recording information of the injured person, injury details, contributing factors and recommendations. You may also include emergency services involved, hospitalization information and witness statements. Use iAuditor to take photo evidence of the injury and track accident location. Browse here for more free incident report sample templates.
A hazard identification checklist is used to assess risks and hazards in the workplace. Identify the work being performed, identify hazards that may cause harm using iAuditor’s photo capture and annotation tool. Create corrective actions in iAuditor to assign tasks to fellow team members to resolve hazards immediately.
A toolbox talk is typically conducted prior to a job or shift commencing and goes for about 5 to 10 minutes. All staff and contractors working on the shift gather to discuss the key hazards and remediation plans associated with the works being performed. iAuditor can be used offline on a mobile to document the group discussion and prompt all workers to sign off.