Incident Management

How to proactively manage incidents and maintain continuous operations

Published April 13th, 2021

What is Incident Management?

Incident management is the process of identifying and analyzing hazards and risks in order to come up with effective mitigation and controls that intend to limit incidents’ disruption to operations, minimize negative impact, and prevent recurrence.

In this article we will discuss how incident is different from near-miss and accident; what are the steps in incident management; and how to improve incident management. We will also feature some tools and reporting templates that can help improve and effectively implement incident management.

What is an Incident and how is it Different from Near-miss and Accident?

The terms are used interchangeably in some industries and all are caused by unwanted events. There are differences, however, according to OSHA and in the context of workplace safety.

Near-miss

Sometimes called a dangerous occurrence, a near-miss is an unplanned event that did not result in bodily harm, illness, fatality, or destruction of property but had the potential to do so. Reporting all near-misses that take place in the workplace is crucial in helping operations fine tune processes and eliminate or mitigate risks.

Near-misses that are reported with all the relevant information can also aid safety officers in formulating safety precautions that can address previously unforeseen hazards and prevent the recurrence of near-misses and avoid more damaging incidents or accidents.

Near-miss Report Forms

Report instances of near-miss using near-miss report forms like this template that can be downloaded for free on mobile or used as a PDF. Indicate if a near-miss requires a pause in operations or should continue business as usual. The information included on near-miss reports should provide clarity on the event and help prevent its recurrence.

Incident

An incident is an undesired event that disrupts operations and hinders the completion of tasks. Incidents can also be potentially destructive events but, like near-miss, has not resulted in injury, death, or property damage. The occurrence of an incident may introduce hazards or risks to a business and its employees and negatively impact the organization. Inaction and failure to report or investigate incidents may result in its recurrence and lead to more serious repercussions.

It is worth noting that there are jurisdictions and organizations where near-miss and incident mean the same.

Incident Investigation Templates

Incident templates can help guide those who report incidents on what information to provide to help better understand the cause of an incident. Use this incident investigation template to provide information on contributing factors that may have led to the incident so that preventive measures can be determined by safety officers.

Accident

Unlike an incident or near-miss, an accident is an unexpected and undesired event that resulted in physical injury, illness, fatality, or property damage. Accidents and incidents are sometimes considered to mean the same thing but a distinction can be made based on their causes.

Accidents are random events that could not have been prevented, with no intended preventive measures put in place to mitigate or avoid its occurrence. Incidents, on the other hand, are considered “predictable and could have been prevented if the right actions were taken.”

Accident Investigation Report Templates

Considering that accidents are always harmful, destructive, and negatively impact operations, actions should be taken to avoid the recurrence of accidents. Use this accident investigation report template to provide all pertinent information surrounding an accident and be able to include photos for better context. Instantly submit the result of the accident investigation and assign corrective actions that can be tracked until completion. Determine the root cause of an accident using the collected information and come up with measures to prevent it from happening again.

Incident Management Steps

Incident management is an ongoing round-the-clock responsibility that entails vigilance in following the right steps in order to keep the workplace safe from identified risks. Here are basic incident management steps that can be implemented in the workplace.

Incident Reporting

The vital first step in incident management that makes an incident known and prompts corresponding action is incident reporting. All information that can contribute to understanding the incident should be collected and reported immediately.

What information to gather for an incident report:

When gathering information for an incident report, the person responsible for reporting should ask for the following:

  • What type of incident happened
  • Who are the people involved
  • Where the incident occurred
  • When the incident happened
  • How severe is the incident, and, if possible, why the incident took place

The incident report can also include photos to help provide better context on the type and severity of the incident.

Incidents that result in property damage should be reported to insurers in a timely manner in order to avoid delays or possible rejection of claims due to late reporting.

When to contact OSHA?

Timeliness of incident reporting is essential as OSHA requires all employers to report an incident within 8 hours if it resulted in employee fatality or within 24 hours if an employee got severely injured. Severely injured meaning in-patient hospitalization, amputation, or eye loss.

Provide the following information when contacting OSHA: business name; names of employees affected; location and time of the incident, brief description of the incident; contact person and phone number.

Corrective Action

Because incidents in the workplace were anticipated based on identified risks, corresponding corrective actions should be applied to mitigate the negative impact of incidents and prevent recurrence. Corrective actions are ideally monitored to ensure that they are completed and that the desired outcome is achieved.

Investigation and Analysis

To maintain smooth operations and workplace safety, known risks and hazards are kept in check by implementing controls that either eliminate the possibility of occurrence of incidents or mitigate their impact. If an incident does occur and it happens to be moderately impactful to the business or severe in nature, an investigation is required to gather more information that will be analyzed in order to get to the root cause of the incident and come up with better controls to be implemented.

Conducting a root cause analysis or following the CAPA process can help uncover possible safety gaps and get to the primary cause of an incident and implement more proactive controls.

An incident investigation may entail the gathering of personal data of the people involved in the incident as well as sensitive information from documents, photos, and other media that can help provide a better understanding of the sequence of events that led to the incident. Using trusted tools with access to secure data storage can help maintain the privacy of information and compliance with industry standards.

Incident Closure

The final step is incident report closure after checking if previous steps have been completed. Incident closure helps verify if the root cause of the incident has been determined, corrective actions were completed, and if learnings were applied to improve processes in order to continuously fine tune safety measures in the workplace.

Improving Incident Management

With evolving risks and hazards, incident management doesn’t end with completing incident management steps. Incident management needs continuous improvement and here are some tips on how to do that:

Consistent Reporting

To make sure that the management and safety officers are aware if incidents occur in the workplace and that the right actions are being taken, incidents need to be reported first. Ensure timely incident reporting by making it easier to collect information and submit incident reports. A safety app like iAuditor by SafetyCulture makes it easier to capture information and submit incident reports anytime, anywhere using mobile devices.

Action Follow-through

Corrective actions need to be monitored to help ensure that the right steps are taken and the intended results are reached. Persons responsible for completing corrective actions can provide feedback or status updates in real-time using iAuditor, making actions a collaborative effort in managing incidents.

Refresher Trainings

There is a need for periodic refresher training on safety and processes as industry standards and regulations evolve over time to cope with new safety risks and hazards. Reinforce safe practices by conducting training that address gaps discovered during analysis of incidents. Utilize training tools like EdApp that features training materials designed to save time for both employees and management.

iAuditor as Incident Management Tool

From efficient incident reporting to in-depth investigation and analysis, iAuditor is a safety software you can use as a tool to help implement effective incident management and keep your business safe and running smoothly.

Author

Erick Brent Francisco

SafetyCulture staff writer

As a staff writer for SafetyCulture, Erick is interested in learning and sharing how technology can improve work processes and workplace safety. Prior to SafetyCulture, Erick worked in logistics, banking and financial services, and retail.